CRIME PREVENTERS

AS A MILITARY POLICE FORCE




Government ya Uganda etambuza abalwanyisa obuzigu mukulonda okugenda mumaaso(Crime preventers)

19/12/2015


Lwaki Banna

Uganda ate be basaba ssente z’obuyambi okusalwako?

May 03, 2014



 

Abbey Walusimbi ( ku ddyo), Titus Kirabo ne Edriss Kironde abatalaaga ensi z’Abazungu okubamatiza ku buyambi.

 

Bya Abbey Walusimbi

AKALULU ka 2016 nga kabindabinda, mwe tusuubira abantu obukadde 10 okulonda Pulezidenti n’ababaka ba Palamenti, buli ludda lugezaako okwessa ku mwanjo.

Ffe abawagizi ba NRM mu nsi z’ebweru, tugezaako okumatiza amawanga n’amakampuni agagaba obuyambi wamu ne bayinvesita abaagala okuleeta ssente mu Uganda baleme kukwataganya bulungi bwakuleeta nsimbi mu Uganda ku kikula kya muntu na ndowooza ya byakwegatta.

Etteeka erikugira ebisiyaga bwe lyayisiddwa amawanga g’Abazungu agamu gagenda olukongoolo kulussa ku bakungu ba Gavumenti ng’okubamma viza era waliwo abamu abaaluguddemu edda!

Okugeza omuduumizi omu owa Poliisi mu Kampala abadde asuubirwa mu Amerika okusoma baamummye viza, omubaka wa Palamenti omu omukazi yabadde alina omukiolo gw’okumuweerako ekirabo naye viza yamummiddwa sso nga teyakuba kalulu ku tteeka lino. Bannaffe abali ku ludda oluvuganya nabo engabo bagirumizza mannyo, tukitegedde nti abamu bagenda bayitaayita mu mawanga gano, nga bagasaba okusalako obuyambi obumu olw’etteeka lino. Babagamba nti kino kye kiyinza okusuula Gavumenti ya NRM.

Enjawukana zibizadde

Ekibuuzo kiri nti kiki ekiyinza okulemesa NRM okuwangula akalulu ka 2016? Nze aba NRM abali ebweru tukola butaweera okulaba nga bammemba b’ekibiina si be bavaako okufiirwa akalulu.

Okwerumaaluma okw’omunda kitono nnyo okusinga ku buzibu bwe tuyinza okufuna okuva ebweru w’eggwanga. N’olwekyo enjawukana munda mu kibiina tuzikendeeze lwe tunaasobola okwang’anga ekizibu ekinene ekitujjidde.

Bammemba ba NRM ebweru w’eggwanga be nkulembera, naddala mu Amerika, Bungereza n’amawanga nga Norway, Sweden, Budaaki n’amalala tukoze pulaani eyinza okuyitibwamu okulwanyisa obukyayi bwe tuyinza okufuna mu mawanga g’Abazungu era agayinza okweyambisibwa okutugatta nga bammemba ng’okulonda tekunnatuuka.

Omwogezi w’ekibiina kyaffe, Edriss Kironde abeera e Colorado yalabudde nti yadde tuteekwa okumanya buli maanyi agaagala okusuula NRM, ekizibu ekisinga kiyinza kuva mu kulwanagana okw’omunda.

“Wadde NRM eyaniriza buli omu naye tusaanye okwegendereza abeeyita bakkaada mu mawanga g’ebweru sso nga bagiriira munda nga kigenge,” Kironde bwe yagambye. Ekibiina ekigatta aba NRM mu mawanga gano kibadde kitalaaga ebibuga n’ensi era bino bye baafunye mu bammemba:

1. Bonna bakkaanyizza n’akabindo ka NRM mu Palamenti, okuwagira Pulezidenti Museveni akwate omumuli gw’ekibiina nga tavuganyiziddwa mu kalulu ka 2016.

Endowooza eri nti kino kye kiyinza okuggyawo enjawukana mu kibiina, twang’ange abatuvuganya nga tewali kwetemamu.

Ekirungi nti ne Ssaabawandiisi Patrick Amama Mbabazi naye yassa omukono ku kiteeso kye kimu ate ng’akakiiko akafuzi ke kajja okusala eky’enkomeredde.

2. Okuwa bammemba amagezi ku ngeri y’okuwooyawooyamu amawanga g’Abazungu ku nsonga z’ebisiyaga, nga tubalaga engeri Abazungu gye balina okuwa ekitiibwa obuwangwa bw’abantu abalala.

3. Okutumbula enkolagana mu byobusuubuzi wakati wa Uganda n’amawanga bammemba gye bali. Tujja kusindika ebibiina by’abasuubuzi babalage obulungi bw’okussa ssente mu Uganda.

Ekiwayi kya NRM e Stockholm, Sweden kye twakyalidde omwezi oguwedde kyatwanjulidde pulojekiti y’okulima n’okusunsula katunguluccumu alina akatale ak’obuliwo mu Sweden n’awalala.

4. Okussaawo emirimu ne pulojekiti ezivaamu ssente eziyamba ekibiina kya NRM n’emirimu gyakyo sinakindi n’ebibiina ebirala.

5. Bammemba baasazeewo ttabamiruka wa bammemba ba NRM abali ebweru okumussa mu kibuga London ekya Bungereza, gye tujja okusisinkanira ssentebe Pulezidenti Museveni.

Ebibiina bisseewo pulojekiti z’ensimbi

Ekibiina kya NRM Diaspora League kirina abawagizi empagi luwaga babiri, Ssentebe wa NRM Pulezidenti Museveni ne Ssaabawandiisi Amama Mbabazi, era tubeebaza olw’obuwagizi bwabwe.

N’olwekyo ebyasalibwawo e Kyankwanzi tebirina kutwawula, wabula okutugatta. Tekirina nsonga disitulikiti ki ewagira ani, anaakwata omumuli gwa NRM ajja kwetaaga obuwagizi bwa buli omu.

Amagezi

Abakulira NRM mu nsi z’ebweru babadde batalaaga amawanga okuva nga March 23 2014 e Boston ne bagenda e United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, ne batalaaga n’ebibuga California, Colorado, Illinois ne Washington DC.

Yonna gye babadde, ne boogerera ne ku leediyo ne ttivvi, babadde bagezaako okusaba Abazungui bayige okussa ekitiibwa mu buwangwa bwa Bannayuganda. Babategeezezza nti obuyambi bwe baagala okusalako buyamba muntu wabulijjo, sso si bali abali mu Palamenti.

Bammemba baayanirizza obubaka bwa Hon Richard Todwong obulaga nti tewali kukubagana mpawa wakati wa Mw. Mbabazi ne Pulezidenti Museveni, era nti babadde bakola bonna okumala emyaka 30.

Ekibiina kitegese okukyala e Canada, Girimaani, Bufalansa, Japan, China, Malaysia, Buyindi, Botswana, South Afrika ne Nigeria.

Amaanyi gaffe tegali mu kuba nti Pulezidenti Museveni aludde mu buyinza, wabula olw’ebyo Uganda by’etuuseeko mu bukulembeze bwa NRM.

Bammemba abalala abali mu kibiina kuliko Edriss Kironde USA, Male Kamya-USA, Kennedy Burashe, USA, Godius Ayesigye -USA, Med Kasujja -Sweden, Diana Atim- Canada, Adam Kasambula -Sweden, Charles Inyoin -Sweden, Peter Mashate-UK, Dr. Keefa Kiwanuka -UK, Patrick Asiimwe -UK, Barbara Ankunda-UK, Dr. Yusuf Kyeyune-Girimaani, Moses Bukenya-USA, Charity Baira, Jacob Bamwenda-USA.

Abbey Kigozi Walusimbi ye ssentebe wa NRM Diaspora League.

Email: awalusimbi@hotmail.com

 

 

Lungubanguba,


o- no plur.(lu/n) strength, energy; good health.


Okuddamu olungubanguba, to regain one’s strength,


recover one’s health. Ndimu olungubanguba. I am in good health.


 


Lumya (-lumizza) v. Tr. Appl. 2 caus. Cause to bite/hurt, etc.; hurt with/by;injure; worry; disappoint. Ekyo kinumya nnyo omwoyo. This worries me a great deal. Ebigezo ebyalumya buli omu ogw’engulu, very difficult examinations, lit. Which made everyone bite the upper (lip, omumwa implied).

 

 


Kuluggusa (-kuluggusizza) v. Tr. Caus. Cause to flow away, wash away. Okukuluggusibwa kw’ettaka, erosion of the soil.

 

 

 


Lala (-laze) v.i.be in anguish, suffer Omwoyo gundaze. I am in anguish.

 


Laza (-lazizza) v,i, cause to be in anguish. Kiraza mwoyo ng’ebbwa eridda mu nkovu. (prov.) It causes anguish to the heart, like a sore recurring in a scar.

 

 

lalusa (-lalusizza) v,tr, caus.madden, craze.

 

 

Lubanga pr,n, the name of Lubaale associated with the Gray Monkey Clan and the Oribi Antelope Clan.

 

 

Guluba (-gulubye) v.i. gallop, trot; skip cavort about, frolic cf. Kannagguluba.

 

 

Gulugulu also gguluggulu ideo. Commonly used with nywera and its derivatives. Very firmly, very tightly. Eccupa nnywevu be gulugulu. The bottle is tightly sealed. Kino kyange gulugulu. This is my very own.

 

 

Gulirira (-guliridde) v.tr. appl. 2 keep buying, buy constantly; hire; bribe.

 

 

Gulaana (-gulaanye) v.i. recip. Buy from one another, barter, bargain.

 

 

Guba (-gubye) v.i be or become dirty/filthy/stained; be stunted; grow poorly; be badly cooked; become hardened/inured; be re-sistant to cleaning; become worn (e.g., of a path).

 

 

Gubira (-gubidde) v.i. & tr. Appl. Become dirty in, etc.; be hardened/inured to.

Nze emiggo nnagigubira dda. I have long since become accustomed to/ inured to beatings. Obudde bungubiridde. I am in trouble/difficulties/a trying situation.

 

 

Gubaasiira (-gubaasidde) v.i be dirty/filthy; look dirtyi. Cf.-gubaasiivu; guba.

 

 

Kikudumu, e- also ekikudumo ki/bi dregs in unstrained beer.

 

 

Kikufiri, e- (ki/bi) rare small tuft of hair.

 

 

Kikujjuko, e- (ki/bi) marvel, wonder, wonderful thing.

 

 

Kikukku adv. Alone.



The Uganda housing Slams in the city of Kampla
The chief of defence
forces, Gen Edward Katumba Wamala, sent a card late last month inviting me to the 34th anniversary of the founding of the Uganda People’s Defence Forces.

 

It was a patriotic act to invite an opposition MP to a military function. In my last years in the media, I, together with Andrew Mwenda and Frank Nyakairu, had been barred from attending any military function or visit a military installation. That is how I did not cover the passing out, (or was it a graduation?) of generals Salim Saleh, Elly Tumwine, David Tinyefuza, and Noble Mayombo (RIP) from the UPDF Senior Command and Staff College, Kimaka in 2005.

 

The UPDF spokesman then, Col Shaban Bantariza, turned down my request, saying he had been instructed not to allow me even near the function. Apart from Mayombo, who died shortly after the course, don’t ask me whether the others have added any value to the institution of the UPDF.

 

Therefore, by Katumba Wamala inviting me, I think the expressed mission of turning UPDF into a national army has not been after all lost. I guess every MP was issued with this invitation. But I think there was an extra motivation to invite me because I sit on the parliamentary committee on defence and internal affairs that supervises UPDF. 

 

Unfortunately for Katumba Wamala, celebrating the 34th anniversary of founding the UPDF, the so-called Tarehe Sita, negates the very purpose for which this invitation was issued to me and all other opposition MPs. I have extensively written about this subject in an earlier article.

 

February 6, 1981, is the day Museveni, together with Tumwine, Julius Chihandae, Fred Rwigyema and others attacked Kabamba barracks to loot guns so they could begin a war to remove Milton Obote from power. This UPDF that Katumba Wamala heads is a creation of the 1995 Constitution. It is, therefore, 20 years old and not 34. What is 34 years old is the guerilla outfit called National Resistance Army (NRA) that is no longer in existence.

 

It is through questioning the marking of days like this that one will understand the mindset of our revolutionary leader. He has denied us a chance to transit from the Luweero jungle mentality to a new order. I raised this matter in parliament last week and Speaker Rebecca Alitwala Kadaga summarily ruled me out of order. On that same day, parliament, for the first time I think in its history, refused to grant an MP a chance to introduce a private member’s bill.

 

The procedure is, you get parliament’s staff to help you print a bill, then you officially notify parliament by way of asking for what they call “leave” to prepare the bill.

 

That is what Dr Michael Lulume Bayiga did when he asked parliament to allow him prepare a bill called Presidential Transition. The NRM, led by new kid on the block Peter Ogwang, shouted a big no. Kadaga attempted to explain that this was more or less a ceremony. She noted that real work would begin when Bayiga tabled the bill to no avail.

 

That is how polarized this country has become.  I hear in Kyankwanzi, Kasule Lumumba, the new NRM secretary general, has vowed to fail the Bayiga bill because for them they have a “sole candidate.”

 

According to Lumumba, thinking or imagining another president other than Museveni is now criminal in the NRM. We are in for interesting times. Don’t blame Katumba Wamala, a former UNLA soldier, when he invites people to celebrate the formation of a guerilla outfit. The most important issue for the citizens is to continue noting incidents of looting and abuses going on under this regime.

 

I hope you have not forgotten that we officially spend Shs 8.5 billion every month on the war in South Sudan. This amount doesn’t include the wear and tear of our military equipment and the loss of soldiers deployed to keep a weak government in power. Mind you, we don’t have Shs 4 billion to repair scan and ultrasound machines in public hospitals!

 

Our army went to South Sudan in December 2013. It is now about 14 months since that deployment. This, by the way, means we have so far spent Shs 119 billion executing a war on behalf of a weak leader.

 

That is why our expenditure on the military has hit a Shs 1.1 trillion mark. Out of this, Shs 342 billion is classified expenditure. The ordinary soldier continues to languish in ramshackle structures as the bosses ride in the latest state-of-the-art Land Cruisers. The ordinary soldier continues to live in the Luweero jungle as the bosses enjoy the ‘heaven’.

 

Harnessing the collective strength of everybody suffering under this regime is what has eluded us these three decades. This is not the opposition’s sole responsibility; church leaders, Muslim leaders and civil society must all act. That is what should occupy us; but unfortunately, the media is feeding us on the Kyankwanzi menu.


semugs@yahoo.com



One

of the Govern

ment Aided Schools in Lwengo District


Uganda is moving in a reverse gear but the driver thinks he is doing great. 

On Mon, Mar 30, 2015
M, Afuwa Kasule  
This is the teacher' s toilet facility 


One of the Government Aided Schools in Lwengo District.
Iam informed the school is within 2km radius to the MP's residence!
Even with the constituency development fund one could change that image.


 

 

  

The Government of Uganda has accepted the advanced technology of the Wide World Websites(www). The service of the internet in Kampala is now unlimited and free for the public:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mr Frank Tumwebaze, the Information, ICT

and Communication minister, announced the

development at Media Centre in Kampala

FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 30 2016

By Benjamin Jumbe

UGANDA, KAMPALA:

Kampala city dwellers are to start enjoying free internet access beginning tomorrow (Saturday).

The ministry of Information, ICT and Communication and the National Information Technology Authority Uganda (NITA U) commence the trial run in Kampala’s central business district and parts of Entebbe.

Mr Frank Tumwebaze, the Information, ICT and Communication minister, who announced the development at Media Centre in Kampala, said: “We will be providing free Wi-Fi services between 6pm and 6 am on weekdays, and at the weekends. Wi-Fi will be free from Saturday 3pm through to Monday 6 am.” Mr Tumwebaze added.

He said free Wi-Fi services will be offered at the Kampala Capital City Authority Street Carnival on Sunday where revellers will enjoy the service throughout the day.

“Internet access is no longer a luxury but a necessity for all Ugandan citizens. The ICT sector must remain at the centre of this countrywide transformation, and steering Uganda to world class efficiency and productivity” Mr Tumwebaze said.

He said the roll out of free internet has been made possible because of investment in the National bBckbone Infrastructure (NBI )whose 3rd phase is nearing completion.

The minister says rolling out NBI has helped government agencies increase productivity, efficiency and reduced costs of internet bandwidth.

“Internet costs have reduced from USD1200 to USD 300 per megabit per second per month in 2010 and 2016 respectively,” Mr Tumwebaze said.

Meanwhile, Dr James Saka, the executive director NITA U, said since the service would be shared between government agencies and the public, and the capacity provided will be up to 2 megabits per second.

He said there would be restrictions to downloading videos, and access to bad site.

bjumbe@ug.nationmedia.com

 

Nb

More like emphasising a human right that the rich have got to communicate with the poor.

Nb

NITA-U head James Saaka said that they have seen the benefits of rolling out the National Data Backbone Infrastructure (NBI) in terms of increased productivity, efficiency and reduced costs of internet bandwidth.

Saaka said that they have taken steps to ensure that the network is safe.

“Because it is shared, everyone will get a maximum of 2 megabytes not for everything. There are restrictions to that internet. You won’t be able to download videos. You won’t have access to those bad sites,”said Saaka.

In addition, to acces the free WiFi in Kampala one has to register – phone number, username, email.

 

President Museveni is trying to buy a Shs70bn gadget to monitor telecom networks and protect himself in power at any cost:

 

Technology will enable govt to eavesdrop in international calls and most probably deal with billion dollar telecom fraud:

President Yoweri Museveni’s staffers at State House are in the final stages of procuring technology that could enable the government to break a billion-dollar mushrooming telecom fraud and also eavesdrop on international calls, The Independent reports exclusively. The technology, called an Intelligent Network Monitoring/verification System (INMS), will cost the Ugandan taxpayer between $20-30 million (Shs. 66 billion—99 billion) and is expected to, for the first time, enable the country monitor the volume and billing of voice and data traffic of telecoms.

An illustration chart to show how the technical operators work to run down the modern systems of communication.

 

While Uganda has technology capabilities to eavesdrop on local calls, international calls and international communications by-pass fraud have been off its radar. Aware of this, some dubious individuals have skimmed billions of shillings off illegal re-routing on international calls. Individuals seeking to transmit sensitive information have also been using international lines, thereby, minimising risks of local eavesdropping.

Insiders say that, for President Museveni, the biggest motivation to procure the INMS technology is its security features; including the eavesdropping capability. This technology will also bring the government closer to knowing how much money exactly telecoms make in their operations.

Since telecoms started operating, they have been doing what is called self-declaration to the sector regulator, Uganda Communications Commission (UCC).

As such, UCC and the Uganda Revenue Authority (URA) have been levying fees and taxes based on what the telecoms say they earned.

UCC, for example, collects an annual levy on telecoms gross revenue of 2 percent. The levy constituted 27% of UCC’s projected revenues in the financial year 2014/2015. And UCC is required to remit 1% of the operators’ of this levy to the Consolidated Fund.

In the 2015 report published this year, the Auditor General, John Muwanga, added his voice to those that have raised a red flag on the regulator’s reliance on the operators audited financial statements to raise invoices of the 2% levy on the revenue. The Auditor General noted that a review of the revenue collection system revealed that the UCC has not yet built capacity to independently verify the revenue figures reflected in the operators audited financial statements to counter the likelihood of audit risk/ or collusion.

“As such, there is a risk of under collecting revenue for the Commission in the circumstance,” the Auditor General’s report said.

In his audit, the AG noted that the regulator said that procurement of a traffic monitoring system is on-going and will enable monitoring of telecom traffic and verification of revenues submitted by operators.

A month-long investigation by The Independent has learnt that the procurement of the INMS, which is expected to also deal with this, was for years kept off the table because of an intense fight between Uganda’s major procurement brokers over who gets the deal. The process moved recently when President Museveni intervened.

                             Awori, Mbabazi and Kutesa mentioned in story of procurement of                                                             telecom state of the art equipment.

Procurement of the technology started in the early 2000s. At the time, different companies were being pushed by different brokers in cabinet. Sam Kutesa, the current Foreign Affairs Minister was pushing for one of the companies, one of the president’s son-in-laws, another. There were other brokers who
were backing Nytex, a Belgian company and another Lebanese company.

Former Presidential candidate Amama Mbabazi, who was Security Minister in 2006, also got involved at some point and reportedly blocked the procurement saying it had a security dimension. Others claim he had taken the deal off Kutesa’s table.

The deal was revived and gained serious momentum when Aggrey Awori was the Minister in charge of
Information and Communication Technology.

The closest the deal came to getting concluded was under spy-turned businessman, Abu Mukasa. Abu Mukasa used to work for the External Security Organisation (ESO) but with the right god fathers, he became a big time broker.

He was at one point an aide de camp to Justice Minister Kahinda Otafiire and later switched camps and got closer to Mbabazi. Mukasa, who had cofounded Hits telecom, which was later sold to Orange, making him Orange’s first Ugandan director, brought a company to procure the technology. The company known as GlobalVoice, was founded by former Haiti President– Laurent Lamothe.

Under this company, Mukasa had pitched to run the technology in the arrangement of Build Operate and Transfer (BoT) because the government at the time didn’t readily have the money to procure it.

However, the deal went off the table because there are some documents that were missing. Some say it was fought by competitors. That round of procurement collapsed. The Independent could not confirm whether Abu Mukasa was going to use China’s ZTE as the supplier of the technology but we understand that ZTE emerged the best bidder in the last round of procurement.

On February 25, 2014, UCC advertised a tender for the procurement under reference No: UCC/ SRVCS/13-14/00389. Eng. Godfrey Mutabazi came with his own pitch of an upgraded capacity system that would cost a staggering $120 million (about Shs400 billion), he told President Museveni. Police chief Kale Kayihura had also offered to have the technology procured under classified expenditure.

But when Museveni heard of the bill tabled by Mutabazi, he discretely directed his spies to do due diligence. Some went to Israel. At most, Museveni was told that the system could cost $ 30
million but it could be got at even $20 million. This sparked off a fall out between Mutabazi and Museveni. Museveni was enraged that Mutabazi had inflated the cost. As a result, UCC was kicked off the procurement process.

Museveni at some point also consulted with Peter Kahiji, the director technical services of IT sector regulator, NITA-U. Finally, President Museveni brought on board Josephine Wapakhabulo, the daughter to the late James Wapakhabulo, who was Uganda’s speaker, foreign affairs minister and Deputy Prime
Minister.

With State House sponsorship, Josephine had secured a Phd in Information Science from Loughborough University in the UK. She holds a degree in Electronics and Electrical Engineering, a Masters in Information Technology and some of her papers have published in reputable scientific journals. She previously worked with carmaker Rolls Royce.

Details of her terms remain scanty but The Independent can report that she is also being considered as the feature boss of Uganda’s National Oil Company. She was shortlisted among the top four for the job.
With Josephine on board, the procurement of the technology, seems to be just a stroke of a pen away. By press time she was outside the country,but The Independent has learnt those involved had zeroed on about four companies and are close to picking a winner.

The Independent could not establish the extent of involvement of the Public Procurement and Disposal of Public Assets Authority (PPDA) in vetting this deal. State House often bypasses PPDA legal mandate when engaging in so-called “classified expenditure”.

Should the procurement succeed this time, insiders say, the technology might bring the country closer to
dealing with a telecom fraud known as voice traffic termination fraud or SIM – box fraud, which costs telecom companies revenue and the government taxes.

International studies have indicated that network operators lose about 3% of the annual revenue due to fraudulent and illegal services. The biggest operator, MTN, last year suffered a huge decline in profits but still managed to rake in Shs177 billion profit.

A 3% loss of that to SIMbox operators amounts to about Shs5.5billion. The Communications Fraud Control Association (CFCA), states that telecoms lose over 15 per cent of their interconnection termination revenue through SIM boxing.

Some researchers put the total global losses from the underground mobile network industry to be $58 billion in 2011.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Uganda bureaucrats bent on making a

 financial killing

 

How it works

If you have ever received a call from a person who says they are abroad yet the number they are using to call you is local, then you have interacted with a SIMbox operation.

At the centre of the operation is a SIMbox or SIM bank, which holds several Simcards and is part of a Voice of Internet Protocol (VoIP). When used fraudulently, it enables costly international calls to be
routed as cheaper local calls.

The technology terminates international calls through local phone numbers such as MTN, Warid, UTL, or whatever and make the calls appear as local. Apparently, fraudulent SIMboxes hijack international voice calls and transfer them over the Internet to a cellular device, which injects them back into the cellular network.

As a result, the calls become local at the destination local network and the cellular operators of the intermediate and destination networks do not receive payments for the call routing and termination.

Experts say that a fraudster can operate thousands of SIM cards from different SIM boxes through one
server. The calls, they explain, are sent through the Internet to a SIM box— that houses ten to 30 illegal SIM cards— which redirects the illegal Voiceover Internet Protocol (VoIP) traffic to mobile networks.

The major players in this under – ground telecom business are mainly two—those based in the terminating country and the illegal international carriers from across the border.

Besides causing the financial loss, an international study shows that SIM – boxes degrade the local service where they operate. Often, cells are overloaded, and voice calls routed over a SIMbox have poor quality, which results in customer dissatisfaction, the study adds.

In Uganda, The Independent has learnt that the kingpins of the fraudulent trade also happen to be major players in the telecom sector, senior officials in cabinet and some Chinese dealers. The Independent, for now, cannot name these individuals for legal reasons.

One might wonder why an individual with a stake in a telecom company would want to operate a SIMbox which effectively harms the big company. The answer is simple; SIMbox operators make a lot of money.

The SIMboxes , apart from the initial capital injection, there are literally no expenses, no taxes at all since it is an underground business. An owner of a SIMbox can earn up to $10,000 dollars a day (Approx.Shs33 million) from just one simbox, those with knowledge on the dark industry say. That is about US$ 3.6 million a year per SIMbox. Operators usually run several and rake in several million dollars. But as simbox operators make these millions, registered operators and government are the major losers.

Simboxing hurts telecoms business of international call termination, which is big business with agreements between telecom companies in millions of dollars.

For instance, for a person using a Vodafone line to call an MTN subscriber in Uganda, Vodafone pays part of what it charges the caller to MTN. What simbox operators do is hijack the call before it lands on the MTN servers, bypass MTN servers, and route the call through a local line.

Therefore, MTN charges the owner of the line the local rate but the owner of the SIMbox skims off a higher rate for helping convert an international call into a local one. Simbox operators receive their cash on offshore accounts to avoid being traced.

In a March 19 2015 letter, then- Financial Intelligence Authority (FIA) boss, Sydney Asubo, reminded UCC boss Mutabazi of the loss accruing from incoming international telecoms traffic that is disguised as local traffic through Simboxes.

At the time, FIA noted it w as investigating revenue diversion and tax evasion in the sector amounting to over US$140 million (over Shs470 billion) in lost revenue in the past three y ears.

Apart from the losses to telecom operators and government in tax revenue, President Museveni fears that the untraced billions made by those who own SIMboxes can easily be used by his opponents to cause insecurity or even regime change.

Estimates indicated that government loses 45 per cent in tax revenue and regulators like MTN over $10 million a month.

Critics of telecom operators say they should have technology capabilities that enable them detect these underground operations since they run on their networks. But the telecom operators are reluctant to incur the additional costs. In some cases, powerful individuals involved in managing the telecom operators either operate or benefit from the operations of SIM boxes. That is why the government alone can step in.

The government intervention, however, benefits the Telecom operators who retain the revenue previously leaking through the fraud. They, therefore, pay more in taxes.

 

International crime

The SIM boxing telecom fraud is not only a Ugandan problem. Kenya has been involved in a major fight with telecoms, the same applies to Ghana and other African countries.

In Kenya, the sector regulator said the country was losing KShs. 3 billion (about UShs. 90 billion) and in Ghana, the annual cost to the country w as also in billions billion.

In Tanzania, President John Magufuli recently suspended the head of his nation’s telecoms regulatory body and disbanded its board over weak management and incompetence, which a statement said had cost the country $181.7 million annually.

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU), has noted that a single operator cannot deal with the problem. As a result, experts say that a combination of cooperation between the operators to track simbox dealers and tight regulation would go a long way in eliminating the vice.

For now, it remains to be seen whether Uganda’s attempt to procure the monitoring technology will succeed and, if it does, whether the government will move beyond its eavesdropping capacity and actually save money from SIMbox fraudsters and undeclared revenue of telecom operators.

 

 

 

At least 39 FM radio stations across Uganda face sanctions from Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) for failing to pay operational charges.

The regulator spells out that those affected “have neither renewed their annual broadcasting licenses nor paid the requisite license and spectrum fees in contravention of the UCC Act.”

The commission advised the public not to deal with the said radio stations because “they are currently operating illegally”.

The affected radio and TV stations include Apex Promotion (Bugiri), Choice FM (Gulu), Fire FM (Mubende), Kampala FM, Kinkizi FM (Kanungu) and Messiah FM (Kasese).

Radio stations pay annual broadcasting fees between Shs 1 million and Shs 3 million depending on their location. The farther it is from Kampala, the lower the amount of money.

Television stations, on the other hand, pay a flat Shs 5 million. Both platforms annually pay for spectrum allocation as well as transmission power.

Fred Otunnu, the acting director of Broadcasting, recently disclosed that rates are to go up this year to match inflation and other industry demands. For example, the charge for new application for a radio station will increase from Shs 5 million to Shs 15 million.

Kin Karisa, the chairman of the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), noted that the broadcasting industry is struggling.

“Just about two dozen radio and television stations actually make money,” he said. “Few businesses and organisations are advertising and they tend to gravitate around particular media houses; moreover, their payments also delay.”

He added that the majority of rural radio stations are in dire straits. “The radio sub-sector is saturated with most of them serving selfish interests of the owners, especially politicians.”



The year 2015 has had problems for the telecommunications companies in Uganda:

At the year, the telecom industry in Uganda was optimistic of better returns.

However, their expectations didn’t come to fruition.

For instance, the introduction of One Network Area by Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan saw leading telecoms – MTN, Airtel, Africell, Smile, Smart, and UTL- register declines in profits. Last August, MTN said in spite of gaining a 7.2% increase in subscribers to 11.1 million during the half year performance, it was hit by a 12.8% decline in incoming voice revenue as a result of the One Network Area, leading to mere 2.6 % growth in total revenue.

Additionally, revenues could be less than expected as government’s directive to switch off unregistered subscribers also weighs down on the industry, forcing them to deactivate more than 300,000 subscribers for failing to register their SIM cards by Nov.30.

In October, Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) slapped MTN Nigeria with a $5.2 billion fine - one of the heaviest to be made on an African telco - for failing to disconnect 5.1 million unregistered subscribers.

After negotiations, Africa’s largest telecommunication company, succeeded in its bid to reduce the fine  to slightly over $3.4 billion, and led to the resignation of its Nigerian boss.

UTL and Africell appear to have experienced the roughest ride.

Early this year, UCC, the regulator, gave UTL 60 days to to show cause why it should continue holding a licence given its financial condition.

On the other hand, reports indicated that in all the five years Orange operated in Uganda to 2014, it never posted a profit, with the worst being 2010 when it plunged Shs 143 billion into the red.  By 2013, Orange’s debt obligations to its shareholders slightly surpassed the capital injection.

And, to save the industry from the declining revenues, MTN, Africell, and Airtel introduced a range of austerity measures through restructuring and re-aligning their business operations.

In March, Africell caused an uproar when it terminated 60 employee contracts. The restructuring came barely a year after Africell acquired Orange Uganda in May 2014.

MTN Uganda decided to hire ZTE, a Chinese company, to handle its networking operations, leaving more than 140 company‘s technical employees uncertain of their future employment. Airtel decided to re-align its business operations in sales and distribution departments to increase productivity and efficiency.

 


Kattikiro wa Buganda akwanyiza bamusiga nsimbi be China bazimbire Buganda amayumba Agobusuubuzi. Okuzimba amayumba gano kugenda kutandikira e Sentema mu Ssaza lye Busiro. Batuuka mu February 2016.
Publish: Dec 15, 2015
                                                 Katikkiro (owookubiri ku ddyo) n’ekibinja kye yagenze nakyo
                                                      nga balambuzibwa emirimu egy’enjawulo e China.
Bya DICKSON KULUMBA 
 
KATIKKIRO Charles Peter Mayiga akomyewo e China n’ategeeza nti olugendo lwe yagendako okusakira Obuganda bamusigansimbi okujja kuno okukola pulojekiti ez’enjawulo, Abachina bwe bakkirizza okuyungula ekibinja ky’abasuubuzi okujja mu Buganda mu February 2016.
Mayiga yategeezezza Bukedde nga yaakatonnya ku kisaawe e Ntebe ku Ssande nti, “ Twabadde tugenze okulaba bamusigansimbi e China era tubalabye, tuluubirira okufuna abayinza okuzimba amayumba  ag’ensimbi ensaamusaamu. Tusuubira okukola nabo emirimu mingi era tubalindirira mu February wa 2016.”
Mu lugendo lwe yatandika nga December 5 yakulemberamu ekibinja omwabadde omuwanika wa Buganda, Robert Waggwa Nsibirwa, Minisita w’ebyettaka, Ying. Martin Kasekende, Roland Sebuwufu akulira BICUL- ekitongole ky’Obwakabaka ekivunaanyizibwa ku kusikiriza bamusigansimbi, akulira Buganda Land Board- Kyewalabye Male n’akulira ekitongole ky’abagenyi e Mmengo, David Ntege.
Ekibinja kino kyasisinkana n’abakulira kkampuni ya Henan Gouji Group nga bano be baazimba amayumba ag’ebbeeyi ku ttaka ly’Obwakabaka e Kigo nga baasooka kutegeeragana okuzimba ku yiika 70 kyokka oluvannyuma lw’enteeseganya, pulojekiti eno egenda kugaziyizibwa okutuuka ku yiika 200.
Sebuwufu agamba nti, “Ettaka ly’e Kigo liweza yiika 257 kyokka nga yiika 200 kwe kugenda okuzimbibwa ekibuga eky’omulembe omuli buli kimu kyokka enju zino z’abo abalina ku nsimbi kuba enju emu eri ku mitwalo 20 egya ddoola.
N’olwekyo Obwakabaka kye bwava busalawo okunoonya bamusigansimbi okuzimba enju ez’ensimbi ensaamusaamu.” 
Henan Gouji Group bakkirizza okujja mu Uganda okwetegereza ebifo we bayinza okuzimba enju eza bamufunampola nga Sebuwufu agamba nti zeezo ezitasussa bukadde 100 eza Uganda.
Ku nsimbi ezo nga kuliko n’ezigula ettaka n’olwekyo agenda kubeera afuna enju ewedde n’ekirungi ekirala ng’asobola okugifuna ku kibanjampola kuba ne Housing Finance Bank yavuddeyo okukwatagana naffe mu nteekateeka eno.” Pulojekiti y’amayumba ag’ensimbi entono yaakuteekebwa Sentema mu ssaza ly’e Busiro ku yiika 204.
Ku Lwokusatu nga December 9, 2015, Mayiga yasisinkanye  Minisita w’enkulaakulana n’obusuubuzi owa China,  Wang Feng ne bakkiriziganya okusindika ekibinja ky’abasuubuzi okulaba engeri gye bayinza okuteeka ensimbi mu bulimi n’obulambuzi mu Buganda.
Sebuwufu annyonnyola obukulu bw’enteeseganya zino nti, “Obwakabaka bumaliridde okutumbula ebyobulimi okwongera okusitula embeera z’abantu baabwo lwakuba nti engeri gye tubukolamu teri ku mutindo ng’ate bannaffe Abachina balina tekinologiya wa waggulu gwe bakozesa mu bulimi n’obulunzi.”
Ayongerako nti, “Mu Buganda mulimu ebyobulambuzi ntoko kyokka tebiri ku mutindo gwa nsi yonna. N’olwekyo twagala okulaba engeri gye  tuyinza okukolagana, bikulaakulanyizibwe. Kino kyakwongera enkulaakulana, okuwa abantu emirimu, ennyingiza y’emisolo si mu Buganda wokka wabula ne Uganda okutwalira awamu.”
Nga  July 27,2015 Kabaka Ronald Mutebi II yatongoza pulojekiti y’amayumba agazimbwa Abachina ku ttaka ly’Obwakabaka e Kigo kyokka abantu ne basaba wabeewo enteekateeka y’okuzimba amayumba ag’ensimbi entono, Mayiga n’ategeeza nti baakwongera okunoonya ab’emikago okutumbula enkulaakulana mu Bwakabaka.
Nb
Kituufu Abaganda bangi balina ebibanja namayumba mwebasula nebiyigo byabwe. Okuzimba enyumba endala ekirindi kuba kuzimbira bapangisa nabasuubuzi abamawanga amalala abajja e Buganda okunonya emirimu n'ensimbi.

Uganda Govt  stops licencing digital TV stations. One understands they want to control the TV broadcasting content.

By Stephen Otage

Posted  Friday, October 2   2015 

 

At Kampala, Uganda:

The Uganda Communications Commission has announced a move away from licensing new television stations to licensing television content developers.

Speaking at the ICT sector review meeting on Tuesday, Mr Patrick Mwesigwa, the deputy director UCC, said the commission has abolished issuing licences because with digital migration, one no longer requires to set up private masts for television signals but just needs a studio to generate the content which is sent to Signet which allocates the channel for it to be aired out.

“This is the reason why we created Signet. It is now cheaper to run a television station because you do not need to install masts everywhere all you need is to generate the content and we shall allocate a channel,” he said.

In June, Uganda joined the rest of the world and switched television broadcasting from analogue to digital broadcasting for better quality, sound and pictures.

However, much as Uganda beat the global deadline, the commission is now grappling with generation of local content for television programming because of few developers, Mr Mwesigwa said.

Speaking at the same event, Mr Pat Samanya, the Ministry of ICT Permanent Secretary, said the government is planning to equip private schools with computer laboratories so as to increase ICT literacy using the rural communications fund.

sotage@ug.nationmedia.com

More questions linger as Uganda migrates to digital TV broadcasting:

People carry TV sets to the Uganda Communications Commission offices in Bugolobi,

Kampala in protest against the switch from analogue to digital TV broadcast last month

By Fredric Musisi

Posted  Saturday, July 11   2015  Uganda migrates to digital TV broadcasting

The massive excitement accompanying last week’s court ruling directing the Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) to immediately revert to analogue TV transmission turned into fodder for conversation. In the taxi, the driver and his conductor chanted about how this would give them opportunity to watch free television again. At my usual diner, I heard one gentleman narrate to the waitresses and his company that the court decision was an order to government to stop forcing them (TV users) from buying decoders from Gotv to access TV.

Last Thursday, Grade One Magistrate Moses Ntende Kagoda of the Mengo Chief Magistrates Court issued an interim order to UCC to switch back to analogue transmission until the main application filed by city lawyer Enoth Mugabi, is determined.

Running to court
Mr Mugabi claimed he decided to go to court after he was aggrieved by UCC’s move to migrate from the old analogue way of signal transmission to digital and yet he freely enjoyed the old signal transmission, unlike digital signal transmission that requires one to pay a monthly subscription. UCC, however, challenged the decision and was overturned this week on Tuesday. Prior to this, there was a sense of reprieve among the public and some TV broadcasters immediately reverted to analogue transmission.

The list of opinions held by the wider public, notably those who went back home on June 15, when the switch off was piloted, to the displeasure of blank screens, is endless. Almost a month since phase I of the digital switch off was effected, more questions are still being asked. 
David Muwonge, a statistician, is one of those who were caught unawares. “I just bought a Gotv kit and decided to move along with modernity,” he says. “One thing I am yet to understand is the whole fuss of digital TV because even after UCC says it is an international obligation, it seems they are also unaware of how Uganda stands to benefit.”

The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB)/content providers contend that slightly more than 10,000 Free to Air boxes have been sold to date, while another 10,000 boxes are still in stock. 
“In total, this would come to 20,000 boxes, assuming on switch off, all the 10,000 boxes in stock are bought. As per the latest survey from different research firms, Uganda has about 3.2 million TV sets. 20,000 boxes translate to a very limited number of TV viewers, who will have migrated by the switch off date,” the NAB chairman Kin Karisa, noted recently in a letter to the Speaker of Parliament.

Several other TV users Saturday Monitor talked to raised questions of the cost of free-to-air set top boxes that UCC is advocating. Although some appreciate the picture and sound quality, they say the content broadcasted is still old-fashioned. The bottom line TV users point out is that they stand to lose out because UCC and TV broadcasters/content providers also do not know what to do. The concerns raised come in the wake of preparations afoot to launch phase II of digital migration.
Sam Batanda, the head of Signet, an affiliate body of Uganda Broadcasting Cooperation (UBC) in charge of digital transmission, says phase II will commence on July 31, which will complete migration in areas such as Entebbe, but largely will cover Arua, Kisoro, Mbarara, Mbale, Masaka and Masindi.

According to UCC, 60 per cent of the television viewers are within the Kampala Metropolitan area in the radius of 60km from the main transmission centre at Kololo. These were switched off in phase I. 
Fred Otunnu, the acting director of broadcasting at UCC, told Saturday Monitor their strategy now is to intensify awareness campaigns in phase II. This, he says, will start next week and will include roadshows and radio awareness to demonstrate because the phase mostly covers rural areas.

“It is true there are a lot of issues that have been raised but we have to move forward,” Mr Otunnu said. “Moving forward means putting extra effort on areas where digital signal will be switched on next.”
In the public court of opinion, majority still maintain the view Uganda was not prepared for digital migration. They wanted the process delayed as did other African countries, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia, Algeria have done so. They pushed their deadlines to 2020 to allow for more groundwork. Other East African countries, including Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda have already migrated. Tanzania effected digital terrestrial broadcasting in the early 1990s. 
Phase III, covering Jinja, Ntungamo, Rubirizi, Fortportal, Gulu, Kiboga, Lira. Kabale and Soroti, will take effect on August 30.

June 17 was the international deadline for all the 198-member nations of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Meeting on June 16, 2006 for the Regional Radio communication Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, member states, including Uganda, set themselves this target to transit from analogue to digital technology. ITU is the United Nations agency that allocates radio spectrum and satellite orbits.
Digital Migration or ‘switch over’ is the name given to the process of changing from analogue terrestrial television, currently used widely, television broadcast services are transmitted on the VHF (Band III) and UHF band (Bands IV and V).

Migration means switching to digital terrestrial television (DTT), where signals are carried on a multiplex, which can carry a number of channels in the same frequency, unlike analogue where frequencies are dichotomised. DTT, according to ITU, means better picture and sound quality, and has potential to increase the amount and variety of television content.
ITU, on its website, says digital migration helps free up the electromagnetic spectrum, which needs to be allocated for other services.

Questions on set top boxes and TV content quality 
Ideally, digital broadcasting is intended to give television consumers more content, choice and better quality service, but instead has increased complaints to the regulator to take necessary action against providers who do not meet standards. 
Content providers on the other hand are jittery about the cost of set top boxes and their shortage in the country. Shortage of set top boxes, especially the free-to-air decoders, means television viewership is affected. A pay TV set top box costs around Shs50,000, but consumers have to subscribe to access more content. A free-to-air set top box costs between Shs150,000 to Shs180,000.

Against the 3.2 million TV sets in the country, content providers say currently, there is slightly above 20,000 set top boxes in the country, which affects TV viewership.
UCC recently approved 16 distributors of free-to-air set top boxes across the country. Mr Otunnu told this newspaper, however, they have also allowed private broadcasters to import free-to-air set top boxes, which will be sold cheaply.

“Their concern is that set top boxes are unaffordable and some have technical issues. They said they wanted to get into the business of ensuring consumers are not cheated, which we agreed to,” Mr Otunnu said. “We did agree on specifications and model types already approved, and these, they said, should be here in a week’s time.”
For phase II, Mr Otunnu, since its covering rural areas, says they are more emphatic on free-to-air terrestrial broadcasting, where consumers can access “free tv”—notably the 24 local channels broadcasting in the country.

Awareness

Richard Kimera of the Consumer Education Trust (CONSET), an NGO which works on consumer awareness, says the problems facing Uganda’s digital switch are misinformation and opposition.
“According to the background, digital migration has been a process. UCC did role out awareness campaigns, which we, the broadcasters and other stakeholders were involved in,” Mr Kimeera pointed out. “It is true concerns of some stakeholders, especially the broadcasters, have not been attended to well but it is a process that is continuous.”

However: “Consumers have become victims of the different players pulling the rope. But UCC, as a regulator, has the obligation to balance these interests but put the consumers at the front.”
UCC’s Otunnu (pictured right) equally admitted that it is a “continuous process” but reiterated their stand that there is no turning back to analogue transmission as a country.”

 

Analogue versus digital broadcasting
Analogue. Analogue TV broadcasting transmits sound and picture through airwaves. Each TV station then gets a license for a single frequency that can only carry one channel. This transmission is therefore limited in signal space, spectrum and frequency, leading to poor quality of sound and picture if frequencies are interfered with.

Digital terrestrial television (DTT). Here, signals are carried on a multiplex, which can carry many television channels in the same frequency channel as one analogue television service. DTT takes two standards, including digital satellite broadcasting, which requires use of a satellite dish to capture data transmissions from long distances, offered by service providers such as MultiChoice’s DStv and Azam TV, and Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting - provided by pay-TV players and free-to-air set top boxes.

Digital Migration. With digital migration, TV broadcasters/content providers relinquished the responsibility of transmitting their own signals. Signet picks up signals from each of the TV stations and transmits them to a wider spectrum. 
Since digital broadcasting take less bandwidth, UCC says it is likely to increase the number of TV channels in the country. This will create room for frequencies for radio, which is already used up. A licence for transmission of a programme/channel around Kampala costs about $4,000 (about Shs13m) and $2500 (about Shs8m) to up country.

Sam Batanda, the head of Signet, an affiliate body of Uganda Broadcasting Cooperation (UBC), in charge of digital transmission, says works on seven sites up country to aid signal distribution are in advanced stages. These include satellite stations in Masaka, Hoima, Mbarara, Mbale, Masindi, and further works on the Kololo mast. This is expected to cost about Shs26 billion. Sites to come on board by August include Lira, Kiboga, Ntungamo, Rukungiri, Rubirizi, Soroti, Gulu and Kabale.

 

The President of the USA Mr Obama has  renewed the AGOA Act for Uganda to trade on with America:

Workers at Fine Spinners Uganda, formerly AGOA factory, in Bugolobi, Kampala, recently.

PHOTO BY STEPHEN WANDERA

By Rafsanjan Abbey Tatya

Posted  Wednesday, July 29  2015 

 

Kampala, UGANDA:

The US Congress has renewed the African Growth and Opportunity Act (Agoa), which was due to expire on September 30, 2015.
Over the past 15 years, Agoa, which allows made-in-Africa goods to sail into the US duty-free, has enjoyed broad bipartisan support in the US, serving as the cornerstone of the ongoing US economic partnership with Africa.
Uganda is one of the 38 African countries eligible for tariff- free and quota-free access into the US market for more than 6,400 products under Agoa.
“The US politics notwithstanding, Agoa re-authorisation was overwhelmingly voted for by both the House of Representatives and the Senate, and with strong support from the Obama administration,” reads in part a letter from the Uganda Embassy in Washington to the Agoa office in Kampala. “The Agoa bill was immediately assented to and signed into law by President Obama on June 29, 2015.”
The senior presidential adviser on Agoa and trade, Ms Susan Muhwezi, described the development as good news for Uganda and sub-Saharan Africa.
“Uganda needs to truly exploit this opportunity of ‘Trade not Aid’ that President Museveni passionately lobbied for,” Ms Muhwezi said.
The Ugandan deputy Chief of Mission in Washington, Mr Alfred Nnam, challenged Uganda to take the offer as their last chance with Agoa.
“After the re-authorisation of the Agoa, the major challenge for our country is how we position ourselves to benefit from it, especially that this may be the last time the unilateral trade preference is renewed void of the requirement for reciprocity,” he said.
Clauses in the renewed Act already point towards the need for a free trade agreement, preferably under a regional arrangement.
When the act was signed into law in May 2000 by then US President Bill Clinton, Uganda was tipped to reap big but many challenges have left little to show in the 15 years of Agoa in Uganda.
Ms Muhwezi asked the government to give the initiative more support and investors to maximally utilise the opportunity.
“The Agoa initiative was not maximally utilised because of its short life span as investors were not thinking on long term,” she said. 
“I request the government, the policy makers, ministry of Finance to make Agoa a priority and create an enabling environment so that the private sector can maximally utilise Agoa this time round.”

Agoa’s achievements in Uganda so far

Trade between Africa and the US has more than tripled since Agoa’s enactment in 2000, and US direct investment in Africa has grown nearly six-fold.
According to the Guardian newspaper, last year, Uganda’s exports to the US were worth $47m, up from $34.8m in 2003. Uganda’s top exports to the US included spices, tea, fish, crafts, and live trees. Agoa has also contributed to the creation of more than one million jobs in sub-Saharan Africa and more than 100,000 American jobs.

 

 

The planets of the solar system as depicted by a NASA computer illustration. Orbits and sizes are not shown to scale.
Credit: NASA

Ever since the discovery of Pluto in 1930, kids grew up learning about the nine planets of our solar system. That all changed starting in the late 1990s, when astronomers began to argue about whether Pluto was a planet. In a highly controversial decision, the International Astronomical Union ultimately decided in 2006 to call Pluto a “dwarf planet,” reducing the list of “real planets” in our solar system to eight.

However, astronomers are now hunting for another planet in our solar system, a true ninth planet, after evidence of its existence was unveiled on Jan. 20, 2016. The so-called "Planet Nine," as scientists are calling it, is about 10 times the mass of Earth and 5,000 times the mass of Pluto.

[The Evidence for 'Planet Nine' in Our Solar System (Gallery)]

- See more at: http://www.space.com/16080-solar-system-planets.html#sthash.rHPtGKVA.dpuf

 

The TV watchers in Uganda have refused to buy the cheap and low quality digital broadcasting systems:

By Gloria Nakajubi
Added 5th July 2016

In June last year, Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) switched off analogue TV to launch the digital migration process. This required everyone in Kampala and areas within a 60km radius to acquire a decoder to access TV signals.

 

Mr Mutabazi  The UCC executive director.

By Gloria Nakajubi


According to the inaugural digital migration survey in the central region shows that only 8% of households with decoders are using the free to air decoders.

The survey that was carried out in the three districts of Kampala Wakiso and Mukono by Ipsos, a global market research body, indicates that for most of the free to air decoders were found in the peri-urban areas. This trend was attributed to the low income levels in these areas.

In June last year, Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) switched off analogue TV to launch the digital migration process. This required everyone in Kampala and areas within a 60km radius to acquire a decoder to access TV signals.
According to the findings, areas of Mukono registered a relatively higher distribution at 7%, followed by Wakiso at 6% and Kampala at 3%.
The major driving factors for the service provider one opts for according to the study is affordability, strong and clear signal and a variety of channels.
Provided by the Uganda Communication Commission, the free to air decoders go for about sh90,000. With this one does not have to pay the monthly subscription as is the case with Pay TV decoders.
However, as explained by Edson Musana of MK Muhumbu Importers, one of the authorised distributors of the free to air decoders, the quality of this service is still lacking.
“The signal strength is still poor, but it also does not have the favoured content such as soccer and Nigerian movie channels,” Musana explained.
He, however, argued that people need to be sensitised on the long term implication of the having a free to air decoder, especially for the low income communities.
“You don’t want to wake up one day with a decoder and yet you cannot pay for subscription,” he said.
The study also established that out of the 1,219 households surveyed, almost 98% had decoders with Wakiso having 100% coverage.
Bukedde TV one of the Vision Group’s platforms still soared as the most watched television in the region at 84% in Mukono, 75% in Wakiso and 62% in Kampala.
Even with the variety of channels as a result of digital migration, local channels still remain as the most popular channels in the surveyed households.
Though Ugandans have embraced digital migration, the study reveals that one of the major complaints is the costs involved. This is mainly on purchasing the decoders and the monthly subscription.